Cognitive/Intellectual Disabilities

Employing persons with a developmental disability: Effects of previous experience

Blessing, L. A., & Jamieson, J. (1999). "Employing persons with a developmental disability: Effects of previous experience." Canadian Journal of Rehabilitation, 12(4): 211-221.

Studied the effects of prior experience on employer attitudes and hiring decisions regarding people with developmental disabilities. In Canada, 20 employers who previously had hired or trained a person with a developmental disability were compared with 18 employers without such experience. Most Ss had personal interviews, and they completed (1) a modified version of the Attitudes Toward the Employability of Persons with Severe Handicaps Scale (L. P. Schmelkin and D. E. Berkell, 1989) and (2) 82 items on factors affecting hiring decisions. Both groups expressed favorable attitudes towards the employability of developmentally disabled workers, with experienced Ss perceiving more advantages than disadvantages of this employment. Inexperienced Ss rated negative worker characteristics as a stronger impediment to hiring than did experienced Ss. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved)

Diagnosing and making reasonable accommodation under ADA for attention-deficit hyperactivity

Drehmer, D. E., & LaVan, H. (1999). "Diagnosing and making reasonable accommodation under ADA for attention-deficit hyperactivity." SAM Advanced Management Journal, 64(3): 28-34.

Presents a study on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) syndrome in adults. Causes of ADHD; ADHD domains; Effective intervention strategies.

Reasonable accommodation for employees with mental disabilities: A mandate for effective supervision?

Hantula, D. A., and Reilly, N. A. (1996). "Reasonable accommodation for employees with mental disabilities: A mandate for effective supervision?" Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 14(1): 107-20.

Reasonable accommodation under Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) for employees with mental disabilities is explored from a behavior analytic perspective. Although much of the attention in issues of reasonable accommodation is concentrated on persons with physical disabilities, it is argued that the needs of individuals with mental disabilities are in greater need of further study. The criteria for successful accommodation in the workplace for employees with mental disabilities is seen to be structurally different, but functionally similar to successful accommodations for employees with physical disabilities, and is based on the development of enabling environments. Behavior analysis offers a theoretical basis and performance management presents a methodological basis for analyzing, developing, implementing, and evaluating reasonable accommodation for persons with mental disabilities, largely in terms of effective supervision. It is concluded that Title I of the ADA may be seen as providing a mandate for effective supervision, which may also be extended to all employees.

Intellectual disability, challenging behavior and cost in care accommodation: What are the links?

Knapp, M., Comas-Herrera, A., Astin, J., Beecham, J., & Pendaries, C. (2005). "Intellectual disability, challenging behavior and cost in care accommodation: What are the links?" Health & Social Care in the Community, 13(4): 297-306.

The paper examines the links between degree of intellectual disability, challenging behaviour, service utilisation and cost for a group of people with intellectual disabilities living in care accommodation in England. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of people with intellectual disabilities, identified via provider organisations, with supplementary collection of costs data. Multivariate analyses of cost variations were carried out for 930 adults with intellectual disabilities. There were strong, nonlinear, interdependent links between degree of intellectual disability, behaviour, service use and costs. Higher costs were associated with more severe intellectual disabilities and more challenging behaviour. Sector and scale of residence also influenced cost in quite complex ways. Access to and use of services by people with intellectual disabilities were not always appropriately linked to perceived or actual needs. Policy makers and local commissioning agencies need to explore the sources of cost variation between individuals, sectors and types of accommodation in order to achieve national policy objectives on quality, choice, independence and inclusion. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR Copyright of Health & Social Care in the Community is the property of Blackwell Publishing Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Returning to work after the onset of illness: Experiences of right hemisphere stroke survivors

Koch, L., Egbert, N., Coeling, H., & Ayers, D. (2005). "Returning to work after the onset of illness: Experiences of right hemisphere stroke survivors." Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 48(4): 209-218.

Experiences of right hemisphere stroke survivors in their attempts to return to work after the onset of stroke were explored through an interdisciplinary qualitative investigation. Key findings indicate that (a) participants experienced an array of functional limitations that precipitated employment changes; (b) employment changes had a substantial psychosocial impact on both the stroke survivor and the primary caregiver; and (c) successful integration into employment was associated with both internal resources (e.g., patience, determination, sense of humor) and external resources (e.g., emotional support and encouragement from caregivers, family, and friends; emotional and instrumental support from healthcare professionals; employer willingness to provide reasonable accommodations). The findings support the use of an ecological approach to facilitate successful return to work for this population.

Employment self-disclosure of postsecondary graduates with learning disabilities: Rates and rationales

Madaus, J. W., Foley, T. E., McGuire, J. M., & Ruban, L. M. (2002). "Employment self-disclosure of postsecondary graduates with learning disabilities: Rates and rationales." Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35(4): 364-369.

132 graduates with learning disabilities (LD) of a large, public, competitive postsecondary institution were surveyed to determine if they had self-disclosed their LD to their current employer and to provide the reasons for choosing to self-disclose or not to self-disclose. Based on a response rate of 67.4% (n=89), the results indicated that 86.5% of the respondents were employed full time. Although nearly 90% of the respondents stated that their LD affected their work in some way, only 30.3% self-disclosed to their employer. Of those who had not self-disclosed, the majority reported that there was no reason or need to self-disclose. However 46.1% reported not self-disclosing due to fear of a potentially negative impact in the workplace or due to a concern for job security. Specific rationales for disclosure and information related to the use of self-reported accommodations and strategies are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Employer and counselor perceptions of workplace accommodations for persons with traumatic brain injury

Michaels, C. A., & Risucci, D. A. (1993). "Employer and counselor perceptions of workplace accommodations for persons with traumatic brain injury." Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 24(1): 38-46.

Compared 85 employers' and 85 vocational rehabilitation counselors' (VRCs') perceptions about the feasibility of and obstacles presented by specific workplace accommodations that potentially present undue hardships. Lack of willingness to make accommodations was addressed in terms of 3 of the most common reasons offered by employers. These were that the accommodations were (1) not fair to co-workers, (2) too time consuming, and (3) too costly. Scenarios were developed to directly gather information on potential limitations within the 7 capacity areas including mobility, communication, self-care, and work skills. While VRCs' views were similar to those of employers, VRCs tended to rate accommodations as more problematic than did employers. VRCs tended to view functional limitations within the individual as most problematic, while employers viewed limitations in actual job performance as most problematic. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Workplaces that work--successful employment for people with disabilities.

Ochocka, J., Roth, D., & Lord, J. (1994). "Workplaces that work--successful employment for people with disabilities." Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 3(1): 29-50.

Examined from a variety of perspectives the experience of successful integrated community employment for persons who have a disability. Specifically, how success is defined is examined, factors contributing to success are addressed, and characteristics of workplaces that shape the employment experience are described. Four female and 11 male disabled employees were observed at their respective work sites and interviewed. Employers/supervisors, and coworkers were also interviewed concerning culture of the workplace, natural support and relationships, physical and social accommodations, and factors of success. Results provide support for understanding the workplace and disability issues within an ecological perspective. Employees, coworkers, and employers all contribute to a successful workplace. Although inclusion of people with disabilities in the workplace is related to policies and practices of employers, it is the interaction of all major players that enhances workplace diversity and inclusion. Workplaces that work are enhanced under the conditions of an appropriate job match, skill development, individualized accommodation, and right support. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

The Americans with Disabilities Act and adults with learning disabilities as employees: The realities of the workplace.

Price, L., Gerber, P. J., & Mulligan, R. (2003). "The Americans with Disabilities Act and adults with learning disabilities as employees: The realities of the workplace." Remedial and Special Education, 24(6): 350-358.

Adults with learning disabilities, ages 19 to 32, were queried to examine their employment experiences at job entry and in job advancement vis-a-vis the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). They were questioned regarding job acquisition; experiences on the job; job advancement; self-disclosure; and employer experiences, attitudes, and beliefs. The interviews indicate that provisions of Title I of the ADA currently are being underutilized by individuals with learning disabilities in the workplace. Self-disclosure about disability was rare, and, surprisingly, reasonable accommodations were used infrequently. These findings raise a number of important questions for consideration by the field of learning disabilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Disability management after stroke: Its medical aspects for workplace accommodation.

Saeki, S. (2000). "Disability management after stroke: Its medical aspects for workplace accommodation." Disability and Rehabilitation, 22(13-14): 578-582.

PURPOSE: Return to work (RTW) after stroke is one of the critical issues for both employer and employee. Early RTW is a manifestation of social restoration for the disabled stroke as well as an effective way to reduce social costs related stroke. METHOD: This paper discusses the medical problems referred to RTW after stroke for workplace accommodation. Reviewing the literature, factors influencing RTW after stroke are addressed. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: The process of RTW is extremely individual in each case, and affected by multiple factors. Therefore, it is necessary to individually evaluate precise impact of each factor on RTW.

Workplace supports: A view from employers who have hired supported employees.

Unger, D. D. (1999). "Workplace supports: A view from employers who have hired supported employees." Focus On Autism AND Other Developmental Disabilities, 14(3), 167-179.

This article describes employers' assessment of the types of workplace supports available within their businesses, the workplace accommodations provided to supported employees, and the role of human service providers in facilitating those accommodations. Employee support needs in the areas of employee training and benefits, career advancement, and work culture were addressed by the 53 employers who participated in the study. The results indicated that employers are quite capable of providing workplace accommodations for workers with significant disabilities, drawing on existing employer resources. The data indicated that employers are going beyond mere compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 "reasonable accommodations" provisions; employers reported responding to employee needs in such areas as career advancement, changing something about one's job, and social integration. Often, supervisors and co-workers played instrumental roles in providing support to co-workers with disabilities.

Development of business supports for persons with mental retardation in the workplace.

Wehman, P., Target, P., Eltzeroth, H., Green, H., Brooke, V., & Barcus, J. M. (1999). "Development of business supports for persons with mental retardation in the workplace." Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 13(3): 175-181.

The establishment of business based supports for workers with disabilities can increase opportunities for secure employment with good pay, benefits, and advancement for people with moderate and severe mental retardation. This article describes a model that helps companies build their capacities to support workers with disabilities. A corporate or community based liaison is available to guide and provide technical assistance during this internal process, which involves: analyzing existing workplace supports and modifying or creating new strategies or activities that enable people with disabilities to participate in all phases of the employment process.